Diabetes insipidus – Overview
Diabetes insipidus wiki
What are the types of diabetes insipidus
Neurogenic or central Diabetes Insipidus: This type of DI is caused by a lack of AVP or arginine vasopressin production in the brain. AVP is a hormone that controls retention of water in the body.
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: This type of DI is caused by an insensitivity of ones kidneys to AVP. The kidneys do not respond properly to this antidiuretic hormone causing water loss.
Dipsogenic DI: This type of DI is caused by a defect or injury in the thirst mechanism located in the hypothalamus gland in the brain. This causes an increase in thirst and fluid intake that causes a suppression of AVP production and increases urine output.
Gestational DI: This DI type only occurs during pregnancy. Pregnant women produce an enzyme called vasopressinase. This enzyme breaks down AVP. It is thought that Gestational DI is a result of an overproduction of vasopressinase.
Central diabetes insipidus
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is a syndrome of disordered thirst, in patients without psychiatric disease, which may be confused with partial central diabetes insipidus. Distinguishing these entities involves monitored water testing. Therapy with antidiuretic hormone in patients with dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is thought to be contraindicated for fear of inducing water intoxication.
Gestational diabetes insipidus
How do you diagnose diabetes insipidus?
What is the most common cause of diabetes insipidus?
What is difference between diabetes insipidus and mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that prevents the body to utilize glucose completely or partially. It is characterized by raising glucose concentration in the blood and alterations in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. This can be due to failure in the formation of insulin or liberation or action. Since insulin is produced by the ² cells of the islets of Langerhans, any receding in the number of functioning cells will decrease the amount of insulin that can be synthesized.
Many diabetics can produce sufficient insulin but some stimulus to the islets tissue is needed in order that secretion can take place. In the early stages of the disease the Insulin Like Activity (ILA) of the blood is often increased, but most of this insulin appears to be bound to protein and is not available for transport across the cell membrane and action of the cell.
The hormones of the anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex, thyroid and ± cells of the islets of Langerhans are glucogenic, that is, they increase the supply of glucose. Possibly they could increase the demand, decrease the secretion or antagonize and inhibit the action of insulin. The body releases hormones that raise blood glucose levels to provide a quick source of energy for coping with stress. In the stress conditions diabetes mellitus may precipitate with genetic predisposition.
Diabetes Insipidus is a condition that shares some of the symptoms of diabetes mellitus, large urine output, great thirst and sometimes a large appetite. But in diabetes insipidus these are symptoms of a specific injury, not a collection of metabolic disorders. The impaired pituitary gland produces less anti-diuretic hormone, a substance that normally helps the kidneys retain water.
Diabetes insipidus vs siadh
Symptoms of diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus symptoms and causes are characterized by extreme versions of a few very common Diabetes Mellitus symptoms. These include:
- Extreme and often excessive thirst for cold water and sometimes even ice water
- Excessive urination due to extreme consumption of water.
The symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus mimic those of Diabetes Mellitus however one main distinction is that the urine will not contain excess glucose and hyperglycemia or, high blood sugar, will not be evident. Signs of dehydration are often the best indicator as sufferers of this disease are often unable to conserve any amount of water in large quantities.
As a result of the extreme loss of liquids, Diabetes Insipidus can interfere with ones daily life. Constantly going to the bathroom can affect ones work life, appetite, and sometimes can affect growth in children. Depletion of electrolytes is also of large concern and is another excellent symptom of Diabetes Insipidus to watch for.
The diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus is both qualitative and quantitative involving both the documentation of the above listed symptoms as well as hormone-level testing to determine the type (if any) of DI in each case.
How do you test for diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus investigations
Diabetes insipidus treatment guidelines
Diabetes insipidus treatment involves having a good and plentiful source of fluid. In the case of neurogenic DI the drug desmopressin is taken to control the frequent thirst and urination.
There is no natural cure for diabetes insipidus but it doesn’t pose any serious complications to the health if the person can take on fluids whenever they feel thirsty. It is confused with diabetes mellitus because the symptoms are similar but testing will determine which disease the person may be afflicted with.